Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin - E-Assessment


Definition of e-assessment

In German study and examination regulations, the term e-assessment is subsumed under the generic term "examination", which, however, also includes homework, oral examinations, etc. E-assessment, on the other hand, refers exclusively to the checking and assessment of learning progress. E-assessment, on the other hand, refers exclusively to the review and assessment of learning progress.

"E-Assessment umfasst alle Aktivitäten im Kontext von elektronischen Lehr- und Lernszenarien, die vor dem Verfahren zur Ermittlung von Kenntnissen und Fertigkeiten von Lernenden (diagnostisch), während des Verfahrens zur Steuerung des Lernprozesses (formativ) und nach Abschluss des Verfahrens zur Leistungsüberprüfung und Leistungsbeurteilung (summativ) eingesetzt werden und in denen ein Computerprogramm, nicht der Mensch, die Assessment-Aktivitäten gestaltet, präsentiert, begleitet, speichert, analysiert, bewertet, dokumentiert und archiviert."

(Franke, P./Handke, J. (2012): E-Assessment. In: Handke, J./Schäfer, A. M. (Hrsg.): E-Learning, E-Teaching und E-Assessment in der Hochschullehre. Eine Anleitung. München: Oldenbourg, 155.)


Assessment types and phases

Forms of assessment before, during and after the learning process


Before starting the learning process: Diagnostic assessment

Before learning, an existing level of knowledge or an already achieved level of competence is determined in order to assess learners or to enable learners to assess themselves. This type of assessment is used to select appropriate courses (e.g. through placement tests) or to plan teaching adapted to the learner (e.g. through entrance examinations).

During the learning process: Formative assessment

During the learning process, assessments are carried out which, on the one hand, document the learners' developing thematic understanding and can help to guide learning. On the other hand, they can indicate potential comprehension problems and the resulting need for adjustments and repetition of teaching and learning activities. Besides classical test formats, work with a process portfolio (incl. continuous feedback) is conceivable here, for example.

After the end of the learning process: Summative assessment

At the end of the learning process, the learning success is reviewed as a whole and the performance is assessed by ascertaining in a formal examination situation whether and how the learners have achieved the learning objectives. The judgement is usually quantitative, i.e. a grade is given to indicate how well the examinees have mastered the learning objects in absolute and relative terms. This type of assessment is dominated by written examinations with closed, semi-open and open task formats.

In addition to these types of assessment, which are oriented towards the learning process, there are two other forms of assessment in higher education: advisory and quality-assurance assessment. Advisory assessment takes place prior to the study programme, e.g. as study counselling, in order to support the choice of study programme. In quality-assurance assessment, on the other hand, the learners become active: they evaluate the previous teaching after a course and, if necessary, make suggestions for improvement so that the teaching can subsequently be adapted.

(vgl. Krüger, M./Schmees, M. (Hrsg.) (2013): E-Assessments in der Hochschullehre. Einführung, Positionen & Einsatzbeispiele. Frankfurt a.M: Peter Lang, 21.)

  • Digital exams
  • Digital examinations
  • E-examinations